Vitamin B12 (as methylcobalamin)
Cobalamin (B12) may be the most popular of the B vitamins. Indeed, B12 does help with energy as well as oxygen transport and nervous system function.
- In B12-deficient athletes and ill persons, supplementation with B12 enhances endurance.
- Required for the formation of hemoglobin and prevents pernicious anemia.
- Involved in the replication of DNA.
Niacin is a form of Vitamin B3. Vitamin B3 is found in many foods including yeast, meat, fish, milk, eggs, green vegetables, beans, and cereal grains.
- Niacin promotes health in the nervous system, digestive system, skin, hair and eyes.
- Niacin has long been used to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or the “good,” cholesterol. HDL cholesterol helps sweep up low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or the “bad,” cholesterol, in your bloodstream.
- Niacin also helps improve liver function, metabolize food, and helps your adrenal glands produce sex and stress hormones.
- Niacin is also known for increasing blood circulation.
- Blond et al. discovered in 20 men without diabetes but with dyslipidemia, 2g niacin supplementation over the course of eight weeks promoted a reduction in triglycerides (28%) and VLDL (68%) while increasing HDL cholesterol (17%).
Pump & Nutrient Absorption Complex
If we were to rank essential pre workout ingredients, 6 grams of citrulline malate would be at the top of our list. Due to rapid arginine metabolism in the liver, citrulline is a better arginine and nitric oxide enhancer, and citrulline malate has been shown to increase training volume and blood flow.
- May increase maximal training volume nearly 20%, and training volume is the strongest predictor of muscle hypertrophy.
- Improves recovery time between sets, making workouts more efficient.
- Scientific investigations on citrulline malate have observed that it improves ATP production during exercise over 30% while working synergistically with creatine to improve phosphocreatine resynthesis rates.
Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid with a big role in cardiovascular health, particularly as it pertains to blood pressure, as it widens blood vessels and improves flow.
- AKG stands for alpha-ketoglutarate, a metabolic intermediate that helps promote ATP production
- Arginine is used to produce nitric oxide by nitric oxide synthase, which then dilates blood vessels and improves oxygen and nutrient delivery to working muscles, driving growth and pumps.
- May assist in stimulating muscle protein synthesis and prevent muscle breakdown
- A 2010 study conducted by Bailey et al. discovered supplemental arginine for 3 days was able to enhance nitric oxide production and decrease oxygen consumption (7%) while improving time to exhaustion by 25% in otherwise healthy men.
HydroMax® Glycerol Monostearate
Glycerol is the backbone of triglycerides, but with a single stearic acid group, it forms glycerol monostearate – a molecule that induces osmotic gradients.
- In the muscle, glycerol monostearate draws in fluid, improving endurance and stamina by resisting dehydration and heat stress.
- For resistance training, this effect creates a muscle full effect, engorging the muscle with fluid for cellular swelling hypertrophy.
Taurine has a myriad of benefits. From helping the body to metabolize fat, improving insulin sensitivity, raising testosterone levels, as an antioxidant, to higher performance and quicker recovery during athletic training and increasing cardiovascular health… it goes without saying that taurine is a great ingredient to include in any dietary protocol.
- Zhang et al. (2004) found that individuals who supplemented with taurine for 1 week before an exhaustive exercise bout significantly improved time to exhaustion, VO2 max, and maximal workload. It also decreased exercise induced DNA damage.
- Baek and colleagues (2012) found taurine to increase rates of angiogenesis (creation of new blood vessels), and this effect is enhanced even more in the presence of beta-alanine.
Agmatine Sulfate helps improve nutrient partitioning which leads to an increase in muscle glycogen (carbs stored in muscle tissues) which then leads to more water retained WITHIN the muscle. This creates a fuller look to the muscles and a greater pump while hitting the iron.
- Agmatine Sulfate also increases NO production by working as a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme, nitric oxide synthase.
- There are studies to suggest that the nutrient partitioning effects of agmatine sulfate are possibly due to its ability to increase the insulin response to carbohydrates. This could be further explained by the increased blood flow to the muscle that occurs with increased NO production.
- LH and GH levels have been shown to be increased through the effects of Agmatine Sulfate and its possible effects on the hypothalamus.
- Agmatine has also been shown to manipulate pain receptors which may allow you to train past normal pain thresholds.
Ornithine is a metabolite of arginine in an alternate pathway to nitric oxide. Providing ornithine reduces arginine’s conversion to ornithine, leaving more available for NO boosting.
- A 2008 study conducted by Sugino et al. discovered supplementation with ornithine was able to reduce perceptions of fatigue to 52% of placebo on a prolonged endurance test and was able to reduce ammonia accrual during exercise.
- Limiting ammonia production doesn’t just decrease perceptions of fatigue, but actually permits longer and more intense training bouts.
- Works synergistically with arginine, citrulline, and other NO boosters for greater total vasodilatory effects.
- Infusions of ornithine have increased growth hormone.
A combination of Astragalus Membranaceus and Panax Notoginseng, AstraGin has been validated to enhance nutrient absorption.
- Increases genetic expression of nutrient transporters along the intestinal wall
- Enhances amino acid absorption by 41% and leucine absorption by 58%
Energy & Endurance Complex
Beta-Alanine is a precursor to carnosine that is better for improving muscle carnosine concentrations than carnosine supplementation itself. Carnosine acts as an intracellular buffer, neutralizing acids and bases.
- Improves high-intensity anaerobic performance, such as high-rep sets and repeated sprints (HIIT).
- A study by Van Thienen et al. (2010) found beta-alanine supplementation to improve power output by 11.5%
- Long term supplementation with beta alanine has been observed to increase lean mass gain while decreasing fat mass.
Trimethylglycine (Betaine Anhydrous)
Methylation is a key regulator in genetic expression. With tri methyl glycine (aka betaine) 3 methyl groups are provided, which has been observed to play a role in liver detoxification, neurotransmitter production, and, most importantly, enhanced physical work capacity and muscular power output.
- Improves muscle strength and accelerates muscle recovery
- May improve the mind-muscle connection
- Studies show that betaine supplementation improves bench press power by 20%.
Caffeine is the world’s most popular supplement. It is capable of many things, including increasing metabolic rate and thermogenesis, boosting fat oxidation, enhancing pain tolerance, and improving athletic performance.
- One study in trained athletes found improved power output (7%) and total work performed (8.5%) compared to placebo. More power and more work equals more gains.
- Supplementation with 400mg caffeine (the amount in RIPTX) has been found to increase thermogenesis by 300 Calories per day – potentially eliminating an entire day’s worth of calories over a 1 week span.
- Can improve endurance performance up to 40%.
Infinergy™ Dicaffeine Malate
Infinergy™ provides all of the same great benefits as caffeine anhydrous. However, it’s specialized form with malic acid affords it the benefit of having no crash or jitters.
- Adrenaline, fat oxidation, performance, no crash!
Neuro Focus Complex
L-Tyrosine helps to activate metabolic pathways that adrenaline – which are typically produced during acute stress and “fight or flight” scenarios.
- Adrenaline is quickly depleted during stressful moments due to a lack of L-Tyrosine.
- Supplements including L-tyrosine and caffeine can maintain reaction time and improve subjective feelings of focus and alertness following exhaustive exercise.
- Structurally similar to thyroid hormones and may help in their formation.
Found in plants like barley and citrus fruits, hordenine increases free adrenaline by acting as a noradrenaline reuptake inhinitor.
- Can increase metabolism and blood flow.
- Works synergistically with caffeine. Caffeine releases adrenaline, and hordenine keeps adrenaline actibe.
- Improves contractility of the heart for better blood flow and nutrient delivery.